Exercise Terms and Definitions
Exercise Terms ....... I
Ideal Body Weight: A body mass index of 20 to 25, which is a proper weight for men and women.
IFBB: International Federation of Bodybuilders originated in 1946. This is an organization which regulates and oversees world-wide men's and women's professional and amateur bodybuilding.
Iliac Crest: This is the Lateral edge of the hip joint, and is usually the location of a hip pointer.
Inositol: This substance helps cholesterol and fat metabolism as well as preventing hardening of arteries. It is also vital for hair growth. However, you must be aware that Caffeine will deplete this substance.
Insulin: This component is the Hormone secreted by particular cells within the pancreas in direct response to accelerated blood sugar (glucose) concentrations.
Intensity: This is a physiological stress element within the body during physical exercise. The level of intensity can be easily ascertained by measuring the pulse or heart rate directly following an exercise session.
Intermittent Exercise: This type of exercise comprises of many shorter sessions of exercise interspersed with rest periods. This is a very good “Exercise For Seniors”!
Internal Obliques: Located beneath the external obliques, these Obliques are muscles that run inward and upward from the hip bones to the lower ribs, allowing rotation and bending at the waist.
Interval Training: This is a type of training consisting of successive sessions of exercise at near maximum intensity, alternating with periods of rest or lighter exercise. A slower jogging pace or brisk walking is examples of interval training. These make great “Golf Exercises”!
Isokinetic: According to general exercise terms, this is a term referring to dynamic activity by the muscle, in which the joint moves through ranges of motion with a constant velocity.
Isokinetic Exercise: This is an Isotonic exercise in which there is supported or related resistance with a constant speed involved. When isokinetic exercise machines such as Nautilus are employed, varying amounts of resistances or weights are being actuated to match a force curve developed by the machine.
Isometric: A muscle contraction in which the muscle generates significant force, but does not undergo appreciable shortening.
Isometric Exercise: This type of exercise is normally performed against an immovable object. This is a muscular contraction that maintains a constant length, whereas the joint is not moving during the application of force. These types of exercises are great “Exercises For Golfers”!
Isotonic: This is a specific muscle contraction where the muscle generates force against a constant resistance, resulting in dynamic movement. This muscle contraction is present when performing arm weight training exercises like curling with dumbbells.
Isotonic Exercise: According to general exercise terms, lifting free weights is an example of isotonic exercise. This is an exercise in which there is a change in muscle length with a constant tension involved.
Exercise Terms ....... J
Jacked: A slang term referring to a person's body which is extremely muscular.
Joint: According to general exercise terms, the area connection between two or more bones where movement occurs.
Juice: A slang term referring to steroids.
Juniper Berries: Juniper berries are a stimulant and diuretic to the stomach. This substance is also used for cleansing the kidneys and blood. Urinary tract problems and gallstone problems are also positively affected by these berries.
Exercise Terms ....... K
Karvonen Formula: According to general exercise terms, this is a method for determining a person's exercise heart rate which takes account for age and resting heart rate.
Ketone: The break-down element of fat molecules that accumulate in the blood as a result of inadequate calorie intake or insulin.
Kickboard: A kickboard is a small rectangular foam board utilized during swimming to assist in developing speed and leg power. The kickboard is held under the chest so that a person's arms are not involved in the swimming stroke, therefore relying only on the feet and legs.
Kinesiology: This is a term referring to the study regarding principles of anatomy and mechanics relative to human movement.
Korotkoff Sounds: According to general exercise terms, Korotkoff sounds are vibrations heard through the use of a stethoscope, as a result of blood flow through constricted arteries.
Kyphosis: A term referring to excessive curvature of the upper spine, resulting in a severe rounding of the shoulders.
Exercise Terms ....... L
Lactic Acid (Lactate): The byproduct of high-intensity or anaerobic exercise which collects in the muscles and causes fatigue, stiffness, and soreness.
Lactose Intolerance: According to general exercise terms, this is a very common condition that results in inability to digest lactose or milk products.
Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): This ligament provides lateral stability to the knee joint, and connects the femur to the fibula.
Latisimus Dorsi Or "Lats": These muscles work to pull the arms down and back. They are a pair of fan-shaped muscles across the middle and lower back which attach the arms to the spine.
Lean Body Mass: The human bodyweight minus body fat. The bodyweight is composed mostly of bone, muscle, and other nonfat tissue.
Left Ventricle: The largest and most muscular chamber of the heart pumps the oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to all the other tissues of the body, thru the main channel called the aorta.
Liftoff: According to general exercise terms, this is the movement of a barbell from the bench supports to a position in which the person can begin the lifting exercise program.
Ligament: The strong, fibrous band of tissue connecting two or more bones, miscellaneous cartilage, and supporting muscles.
Linoleic Acid: According to general exercise terms, this is a constituent of lecithin, this is a polyunsaturated fat known as vitamin F, which is indispensable for life, and must be obtained only from foods.
Lipoprotein: This is a component made up of fat, protein and cholesterol. It functions as the transport vehicle to carry fat throughout the body.
Lobelia: This herb is one of the most valuable herbs do to the holistic combination of relaxation and stimulation. It is also a relaxant and has a significant effect on many other ailments. It is beneficial for allergies, coughs, colds and headaches.
Lock Out: According to general exercise terms, this is a term referring to the final movement of lifting a weight until the joint of the elbows or knees are locked in place.
Lower Abs: A term and abbreviation referring to the abdominal muscles beneath the navel.
Low Impact Aerobics: Within golf terminology terms, low impact aerobics are exercise sessions where one foot is always in contact with the floor. High-impact routines involve more vigorous movements including jumps, hops, and skips where both feet may be off the floor at the same time.
Lumbar: A term referring to the lower region of your spine, including vertebrates L1 through L5. These vertebrates are used for bending and extending the body forward and back, with the aid of the erector and abdominal spinal muscles.
Lumbar Vertebrae: Five vertebrae of the lower back (L1 - L5) that articulate in conjunction with the sacrum to form the lumbosacral joint.
Lumbosacral: According to general exercise terms, this is a term referring to the low back region which is comprised of the lumbar and sacral spine.
Lycopene: Lycopene is an antioxidant compound commonly found in fruits and vegetables
Lymphatic System: According to general exercise terms, this system includes the spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes along with the vessels that carry the lymph. These are the tissues and organs that store, produce, and carry cells that fight infection.
Exercise Terms ....... M
Machine: An exercise machine where stacks of weights and a lock pin are used to select the desired weight for lifting. The person sits on a bench while utilizing handles that move in a channel to lift the designated weight.
Magnesium: According to general exercise terms, this is a compound that helps to prevent stress, depression, and dizziness. It lowers blood pressure, reduces irritability and nervousness. This is considered a major calcium and potassium enhancement. Sources of this compound are generally found in dairy products, meat, and seafood.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): The MRI procedure does not require radiation and is proficient in diagnosing soft tissue, disc and meniscus injuries. This imaging process emits a radio frequency pulse which causes elements of the injured tissue to react to this pulse. Contingent with this process, a computer displays a permanent film which establishes a visual image.
Malleolus: According to general exercise terms, this is a term referring to a rounded projection on either side of the ankle joint. The medial malleolus is the tibia, and the lateral malleolus is the fibula.
Manganese: Manganese makes it possible for the body to utilize vitamin E and thiamin. It also helps to metabolize fat and protein, as well as being important for reproduction and bone growth. Maintaining the health of the nervous and immune systems is another important function of this compound. Good sources of manganese include: fruits and vegetables, as well as whole-grain products.
Marathon: According to general exercise terms, this is a term referring to a foot race which covers a distance of 26.2 miles.
Max: This term refers to the maximum effort for a single repetition of an exercise.
Maximal Oxygen Uptake: This is the largest amount of oxygen which can be utilized at the cellular level for the entire human body.
Maximal Aerobic Power (MAX VO2): This is the maximum volume of oxygen consumed per unit of time.
Maximum Heart Rate: To determine the maximum rate, subtract your age from 220. This is the fastest rate at which your heart should beat during exercise training.
Mechanical Advantage: This term refers to the ratio of the length of the moment arm through which a muscular force moves, to the length of a moment arm through which a resistive force acts.
Meniscectomy: When all or part of damaged meniscus is removed in the knee with an intra-articular surgical procedure.
Metabolic syndrome: According to general exercise terms, Metaboic syndrome is any combination of the following unhealthy conditions: high triglycerides, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDLs, and high fasting glucose.
Metabolism: Metabolism is the physiological and chemical processes in the body Which provide energy for the sustenance and maintenance of life.
Military Press: The act of pressing a barbell from the upper chest upwards in a sitting or standing position.
Molybdenum: A deficiency in molybdenum may cause impotence in men of advanced age. Good sources of this component are: legumes, beans, peas, cereal grains, and dark green leafy vegetables.
Morbid Obesity: Extreme obesity is classified as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35. This is called Morbid because there are predictable, negative effects on the heart, lungs, and joints.
Motor Skill: Motor skill is an indication of general athletic skill. Enhanced motor skills are the ability of muscles to function efficiently and harmoniously, resulting in smooth coordinated muscular movements.
Mucopolysaccharide: This component is a thick gelatinous material found several places in the body. It adheres cells together and lubricates the joints.
Multijoint Exercise: A term referring to an exercise which involves movement in two or more major joints.
Muscle: Muscles are tissue containing fibers which are organized into bundles that contract to cause bodily movement. All muscle fibers run in the same direction as the action they perform.
Muscle Tone: Muscles which appear firm and in a constant but slight degree of contraction.
Muscular Endurance: Being a reflection of general athletic skill, the ability of muscles to function efficiently and harmoniously which result in smooth coordinated muscular movements.
Myopathy: Diseases of the muscles.
Exercise Terms ....... N
N.A.T.A.: National Athletic Trainers' Association. The governing and certifying body of the athletic training profession.
Nautilus: An Isokinetic-type exercise machine that attempts to match resistance with the user's force.
Neuritis: A condition relative to inflammation of nerves within the body.
Neuromuscular: A term referring to the muscles and nerves.
Neuropathy: A group of symptoms caused by abnormalities in sensory nerves. The symptoms include numbness and tingling in the feet, toes and/or hands, followed by progressive muscular weakness.
Neutral Grip: A term referring to a grip in which the knuckles point out to the side and the palm faces in.
Nitrites: Components that may combine with natural food and stomach chemicals to cause dangerous cancer causing agents called nitrosamines.
Non-Locks: To perform an exercise without going through complete range of motion.
Nutraceutical: A term referring to a naturally occurring food such as Garlic, or a food supplement such as Cod Liver Oil that is believed to have beneficial effects on human health.
Nutrient: Nutrients utilized by the body to maintain good health. It is a chemical compound that is found in food. Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are good examples of beneficial nutrients.
Nutrition: A fitness terminology term referring to the sum of the processes by which a plant or animal utilizes food substances.
Exercise Terms ....... O
Obesity: Obesity is generally specified as having a Body Mass Index in excess of 30. This is a condition indicating excessive body weight caused by the accumulation of too much fat.
Oblique's: This is an abbreviation for external oblique's, which are the muscles to either side of the abdominal muscles that flex and rotate the trunk.
Odd Lifts: According to general exercise terms, odd lifts are exercises used in competition such as squats, bench presses, and barbell curls as opposed to clean and jerk and snatch methods.
Olympic: A term relating to weight lifting sets which are of very high quality, and precision made used for competition. The plates are machined for accurate weight and all moving parts have either bearings or brass bushings.
Olympic Bar: A specific bar normally referred to as a "barbell" used for squat, bench, and overhead press actions as well as other exercises. The bar is metal and seven feet in length, weighing 45 lbs, and fits two inch weight plates.
Olympic Lifts: Referring to the Snatch and the Clean and Jerk, which are two movements used in national and international Olympic competitions.
One-Repetition Maximum: Within exercise terminology, this is a term referring to the heaviest weight which can be lifted with proper technique for one repetition.
Open Kinetic Chain: A movement typically involved in pushing or pulling against a machine. It is an action during which the most distal body part is free to move, and often occurs with lower or upper body movements with the feet or hands off the floor.
Orthomolecular: Doctors and general medical practioners who practice preventive medicine and use vitamin therapies are known as Orthomolecular physicians. It is the right molecule used for the proper treatment.
Osteochondritis Dessicans: A term referring to a piece of bone or cartilage loosened from its attachment due to physical trauma, which in turn is a primary cause of lesions.
Osteoporosis: The specific disorder relating to demineralization of bone tissue which results in decreased bone mineral density.
Overhand Grip: Referring to a grip in which the hand grasps the bar with the knuckles up and the palm down.
Overload Principle: The act of applying a greater load than normal to a muscle for the purpose of increasing it's capability.
Over-striding: A term referring to a running or walking gait in which the foot hits too far in front of the body's center of gravity, which causes a braking effect.
Over-training: An exercise glossary term referring to a condition where a person rests too little or trains too much or both, resulting in illness, injury, or a diminished exercise capacity.
Oxygen Deficit: The difference between the amounts of oxygen actually consumed during exercise as opposed to that which is required.
Exercise Terms ....... P
Pace: The speed at which a person trains including rest periods held between exercises.
Exercises for golfers will include very specific pacing.
Pace/Tempo Training: A training session involving an exercise intensity performed at the lactate threshold.
Pantothenic Acid: Pantothenic acid is a compound which is necessary for the metabolism of fat and sugar within the body. Some very good sources for this item include: whole-grain cereals, meat, fish, poultry, and legumes.
Papaya Leaf: Papaya contains a digestive enzyme called papain that helps digest protein, and reduces heartburn along with assisting digestion. Papaya is also said to be good for constipation.
Partial Reps: A term referring to performing exercises without going through a complete range of motion either at the end of a rep or at the beginning.
Passive Warm-Up: An exercise warm-up which involves receiving tissue manipulation or external warmth such as heating pads, a hot shower, or a physical massage. This is a good idea prior to “Golf Stretching” sessions!
Peak Contraction: Using shortened movements during an exercise session until the muscles cramp.
Pectorals Or "Pecs": This refers to the pair of muscles in the chest that work to pull the upper arms across or toward the chest. The pectoralis major involves the chest from the top of the arm to the collarbone, down to the upper six ribs and the sternum. The smaller pectoralis minor is located beneath, and runs from shoulder blade to around mid chest.
Perceived Exertion: This is an unscientific way of staying within the target heart rate zone. This is the level of exertion intensity felt on a scale of 0 to 10 during exercise .
Performance Goal: This is a goal evaluated by a self-referenced personal performance standard, such as a person's desire to best their previous record.
Periodization: A systematic procedure of specified variations in a resistance training session during a training cycle.
Phentermine: This substance is an appetite suppressant which disrupts the transmission of signals from the neurotransmitters. It is commonly is used for obesity control.
Plasticity: A term referring to the proclivity of a muscle to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch, and even after the pressure or load has been removed.
Plyometrics: Exercises specified to generate the greatest amount of force in the shortest period of time.
Plyometric Exercise: This is an exercise where muscles are loaded quickly and stretched, and then suddenly contracted to produce a movement.
This is a very good exercise for seniors!
Postural Alignment: This is regarded as the proper body position when the head is fully upright with the shoulders relaxed and not rounded, with the pelvis slightly tilted tilted to the posterior to align the torso directly over the pelvis.
Power Exercise; A power exercise is more of a structural core exercise that is performed quickly.
Power Lifts: The bench press, squat, and dead lift are the three movements used in power lifting competition.
Power Training: This is a procedure used in weight training utilizing slow repetitions and heavy weights.
Progressive Resistance: This procedure is the backbone of all weight training, and consists of training where the weight or resistance is increased as muscles gain endurance and strength.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): A type of stretching that involves passive and active muscle actions known as "concentric and isometric".
Pull: A pull is known as the movement toward center of the body during the concentric contraction of the target muscle. Isolated actions are classified by their compound counterparts.
Pumped: This is a term referring to the swelling that temporarily occurs in a muscle directly following an exercise session.
Pumping Iron: A term known as "Lifting Weights".
Push: A push is known as the movement away from the center of the body during the concentric contraction of the target muscle. Isolated movements are classified by their compound counterparts.
Pyramid Training: This is a type of training variation where the weight is progressively increased in sequential sets, with a corresponding decrease in the number of repetitions.
We hope these Exercise Terms are helpful to you in further understanding the wonderful subject of fitness!
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