Fitness Terminology . . . A thru H

Fitness Terms and Definitions

Fitness Terminology ....... A

Abdominal Muscles: These are the muscles that establish the supporting wall for the organs of the pelvic regions and abdomen.

Abduction: Movement of a limbs away from the center of the body, such as raising your arms up to shoulder height from an anatomical position.

Abductors: The muscles of the hip region that pull or extend your legs apart. Minimus and Gluteus medius pull your legs outward.

Absolute Strength: According to Fitness Terminology, this is the maximum weight a person can lift in one repetition.

Absorption: This is the process by which nutrients are passed into the bloodstream.

Adrenals: These are the glands that manufacture adrenaline, and are located above each kidney.

Aerobic Exercise: Activity by which your body supplies sufficient oxygen to the working muscles, for a given period of time. Cycling, Running, and swimming are examples of aerobic activities.

As far as Golf Exercises go, aerobics is about the best!

Fitness Terminology: Aerobics - Great for you

Agility: According to Fitness Terminology, this is the ability to start, stop, and move the body very quickly in several different directions. This is very important in overall Golf Fitness.

Anatomical position: Position in which you stand erect with your arms down at your sides and your palms forward.

Arm Blaster: An aluminum strip about supported at waist height by a leather strap around the neck. This keeps your elbows from moving while doing tricep push-downs or during the act of curling barbells or dumbbells.


Fitness Terminology ....... B

Balance: Within Exercise Terms, this is a state of equilibrium in which the body has the ability to exist in space with controlled movement.

BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate): A rate of energy (which is difficult to measure accurately) that is used for metabolism when the body is at complete rest, and is closely related to the muscle mass. This is Usually measured by the amount of oxygen consumed.

Bariatric: This is the branch of medicine associated with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity, both surgical and pharmacological.

Body composition: The relative amounts of the structural components of the body, including your bone, muscle, and fat.

Body Density: This is Exercise Terminology describing the compactness of your body and is equal to the body weight divided by the body volume.

Body Mass Index (BMI): A calculation used to estimate the ratio of your body weight to your height and degree or mass of the fat load on your body, thereby signifying the degree by which you are underweight or overweight.

Bulking Up: According to the Exercise Glossary, this alludes to maintaining body weight through adding fat, muscle, or both.

This is important to Golf Fitness!

Burn: A burning sensation of a muscle caused by fatigue by-products and microscopic muscle tears during exercise. This normally happens when a muscle has been worked intensely.


Fitness Terminology ....... C

Cardio Respiratory Endurance: The capacity of your heart, lungs, and blood vessels to function properly during very vigorous and sustained activity such as running, skiing or swimming.

This is vital to a Golf Fitness Program!

Cardio Respiratory Fitness: This is the proper health and functioning of the respiratory and circulatory systems.

Calisthenics: Exercises performed in a prescribed cadence for the purpose of muscular development.

Fitness Terminology: Exercises are good for you

Circuit Training: A prescribed routine of selected activities or exercises performed quickly in a specific sequence at individual workout or fitness stations.

Concentric Contraction: According to Fitness Terminology, this is a specific contraction of a muscle in which it shortens and works against gravity.

Conditioning Period: An exercise portion of a workout which has a heart-rate intensity between 60 and 80 percent of the difference between resting and maximal heart rates. Proper Golf Exercises will promote sufficient heart-rate intensity.

Continuous Training: Training involving maintaining a constant tempo of exercise for 20 minutes or more. These can be sessions of lighter exercise alternating with short bouts of more vigorous exercise.

Cool Down: The winding down period after completion of the main exercising session, including activities such as walking, slow jogging, and stretching the major muscle groups.

Cross-Training: A system by which you combine several exercise modes within one fitness program.

Crunches: Abdominal exercises or sit-ups done on the floor with your legs elevated and your hands held behind your neck.

Fitness Terminology ....... D

Dead Lift: A weight lifting procedure where the lifter stands erect with their shoulders back. The weight is lifted from the floor to approximately waist height.

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: Within Golf Terminology, this is a condition that is quite often felt 2-3 days after intense exercise like weight training. This is caused by the micro tears within the muscles as part of the body rebuilding phase.

Distance Repeats: Repeated sessions of alternate walking and running using prescribed distances as the determinant of the workout.

Drop Set: Performing repetitions at a certain weight, then immediately dropping the poundage and continuing without rest for several sessions.

Duration: According to Fitness Terminology, this is the "time span" of training sessions.

Dynamic Stretching: The type of stretching that utilizes a speed of movement and is specific to a prescribed movement pattern or sporting activity.

Dystonic Spasm: Brief recurring muscle contractions that result in an abnormal posture or repetitive and twisting movements.


Fitness Terminology ....... E

Easy Set: An exercise or fitness routine that is much less than maximum effort expended.

Eccentric Action: An action that occurs when a muscle is not able to develop the required tension and is over-powered by an external load, which causes the muscle to progressively lengthen.

Eccentric Contraction: A contraction in which the muscle works with gravity and therefore lengthens.

Eccentric Muscle Contraction: Also known as a "negative" contraction in weight training, this is a contraction which is an overall lengthening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to control motion performed by an outside force.

Elasticity: This is the ability of a muscle fiber to return to its original resting length after passive stretches.

Endorphins: A group of proteins produced naturally by the body with potent analgesic properties. These are brain chemicals that contribute to good feelings during and after exercise.

Exercise Arrangement: A prescribed sequence of exercises within a fitness training session.

Exercise Choice: Exercises selected for part of a fitness training program.

Exercises: In training for health fitness, these are the individual movements performed during a session.

Fitness Terminology: Exercise is essential

Explosiveness: A muscle's ability to create strength as forcefully and quickly as possible. This explosive muscle reaction is important in Golf Fitness Training.

Extension: The act of straightening of a joint achieved by an extensor muscles.

Extensors: Muscles groups that increase the angle of a joint, like the quadriceps straighten-out or extend the knee.

External Oblique's: Muscles that lie on top of the internal oblique's which run diagonally inward and downward from the lower ribs to the pelvis which allow for bending forward and twisting at the waist.

External Rotation: An outward rotation which moves away from the mid-line of the body.

E-Z Bar: A curl bar that has a more natural hand placement that fits 2" Olympic-style plates. This is normally a 47" long "wavy" bar which is easier on the wrists.


Fitness Terminology ....... F

Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber: These fibers are the first to be used in short and rapid bursts of activity. It's a type of muscle fiber with quick contractile characteristics and a low capacity to use oxygen.

Fat Free Weight: This weight is often called "lean body weight" or when your body is free of fat.

Fat Weight: Measured as the "absolute" amount of body fat.

Flexibility: The range of movement in a particular joint with its corresponding muscle group.

Flexors: Muscles which decrease the angle of a joint, like the hamstring muscles bend or flex the knee joint.


Fitness Terminology ....... G

Gadolinium MRI: The chemical gadolinium is injected into the joint being analyzed so as to enhance the diagnostic image under review during an MRI.

Galactosemia: A hereditary gene disorder in which lactose or milk becomes toxic as food.

Gamekeeper's Thumb: A physical tearing or rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament in the metacarpophalangeal joint within the thumb.

Gastralgia: Commonly known as a stomach ache.

Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining with inflamed membranes. Most frequently the malady is the result of inappropriate patterns of eating and/or emotional stress.

Gastroesophageal Reflux: An occasional involuntary regurgitation of surface acids or stomach contents into the throat, causing severe heartburn.

Gentian (Gentiana Lutea): This substance enhances the ability to digest and assimilate food, therefore increases the sensitivity of glands and organs to adrenalin, which is the hormone secreted by the body when rapid energy is required.

Giant Set: Performing three or more exercises for the same body part in succession without rest.

Ginger (Zingiber Officinale): As a gargle, this product can give temporary relief of sore throats. It also stimulates circulation in the gastrointestinal area of the body. It is also a useful diaphoretic, which promotes perspiration.

Ginger Root: Ginger is a proven remedy for indigestion, cramps, and upset stomach. It also helps cleanse kidneys and is good for the stomach and relieves nausea quickly. It has also been used for easing cold symptoms and sore throats as well as stimulating the circulatory system and helping to cleanse the bowels. It can be used for help in cases of morning and motion sickness.

Ginseng (American Ginseng Standardized Extract): Traditionally Ginseng is used in Asia and parts of the former Soviet Union as a "cure-all" and helps the body adapt to stress.

Glenhumeral: According to Fitness Terminology, this is a "ball and socket" joint within the shoulder girdle, consisting of the glenoid capsule which is the head of the humerus and labrum. This is a type of joint that allows 360-degree motion.

Glenoid: This is the cavity of the scapula into which the head of the humerus fits to form the shoulder girdle.

Glucagon: According to Fitness Terminology, this is the hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas that increases the release of sugar by the liver, which means it is hyperglycemic. The substance produced by the beta cells, insulin, induces many tissues to absorb glucose through their membranes and out of the blood, which means it is hypoglycemic.

Glucosamine: Glucosamine is an amino polysaccharide, which is a combination of an amino acid-glutamine and a sugar-glucose. Glucosamine stimulates the production of specific molecules that provide elasticity and strength to the joint involved.

Glucose Intolerance: A pre-diabetic state in which the blood glucose is higher than the normal range, but not high enough to be considered diabetic. This condition can be effectively treated by weight loss.

Glutamic Acid: This is an amino acid present in most all complete proteins, and manufactured primarily from vegetable protein. It can be used as a salt substitute and a flavor-intensifying agent.

Gluten: According to Fitness Terminology, this is a mixture of two primary proteins, glutenin and gliadin, which are both present in barley, wheat, oats, and rye.

Gluteus Maximus, Medius And Minimus Or "Glutes": These are the three muscles of the hips and buttocks that extend your thighs backward and to the side (abduction) and rotate your legs at the hips.

Fitness Terminology: Brisk exercise is wonderful

Glycemic Index: The exact measuring system to find the extent to which some foods raise the blood sugar level. The basis used is white bread, which has a Glycemic Index of 100. The higher the score, the greater the rise in blood sugar.

Glycolysis: According to Fitness Terminology, this is a term referring to the breakdown of carbohydrates (either glucose delivered in the blood stream, or glycogen stored in the muscle) which produces AlP.

Goal Repetitions: The number of planned repetitions designated to perform during an exercise session.

Goal Setting: A plan or strategy for causing a behavioral change.

Golgi Tendon Organ: A sensory organ located within the tendons of the musculotendinous region that recognizes changes in tension within the muscle.

Grade One Injury: A somewhat mild injury in which tendons, ligaments, or other musculoskeletal tissue may have been contused or stretched, but not disrupted or otherwise torn.

Grade Two Injury: A medium or moderate injury when musculoskeletal tissue has been partially, but not totally torn which causes significant limitation in function of the damaged tissues.

Grade Three Injury: According to Fitness Terminology, this is a painful and severe injury in which tissue has been significantly or totally torn and disrupted causing a virtual loss of function.

Green Tea: A high energy tea extract that prevents the absorption of fat from the intestines.

Grip Width: The distance between the hands when placed on a bar used in weight lifting or gymnastics.

Groin: The location of muscles within the body which rotate, flex and adduct the hip junction of the abdomen and thigh.

Growth Hormone: This hormone promotes muscle growth and the breakdown of body fat for energy. It is an anabolic hormone released by the pituitary gland.

Guar Gum: Historically this herb has been used to curb the appetite and for treating diabetes. This herb also carries toxins out of the body.

Guarana: A fatigue-fighting high energy source. The seeds of this plant are a source of caffeine and are widely used for a dynamic stimulating effect. It is also a central nervous system stimulant and is considered the least likely of all caffeine plants to cause anxiety.

Guns: Slang term for strong and powerful biceps.

Fitness Terminology: Keep your weight down

Fitness Terminology ....... H

Half Marathon: A foot race of 13.1 miles, which is one half the distance of a marathon (26.2 miles).

Hammer Toe: This is a condition where the first digit of a toe is at a significantly different angle than the remaining digits of the same toe.

Hamstring Muscles: According to Fitness Terminology, this is a group of three muscles on the back of the thigh that run from the basis of the pelvis to below the knees. These muscles allow bending of the knees, and along with the "glutes" straighten the legs at the hips.

Hand Off: Assistance from a "spotter" in placing a weight to the starting position for an exercise in weight lifting.

Hard Set: While using maximum effort, to perform a specified number of repetitions of an exercise.

Hardbody: A term referring to a person with a very lean, fit, and muscular physique.

Heart Rate Reserve (HRR): The difference between a person's maximal heart rate and their resting heart rate.

Health Appraisal: A process of screening potential fitness applicants for risk factors and symptoms of orthopedic diseases, pulmonary metabolic, and chronic cardiovascular problems, in order to assure safety measures during exercise participation.

Heat Cramps: A term referring to painful muscle spasms of the legs or arms caused by excessive body heat in conjunction with depletion of body fluids and electrolytes.

Heel Cup: This is an orthotic device inserted into the shoe under the heel to give support to the Achilles tendon and to absorb impact at the heel.

Hematoma: A term referring to a tumor-like mass caused by an excessive pooling of coagulated blood in a cavity.

Hemostatic: A substance used either internally or externally to slow or stop excessive bleeding.

Hip Flexors: These are the large muscles which are the strong flexors of the hip joint.

Hip Pointer: This is a term referring to a contusion of the iliac crest.

Homeostasis: A term referring to the body's physiological equilibrium.

Hops: This substance tones the liver and is a pain reliever and mild sedative, as well as effective in treating insomnia. It also is used to relieve cramps and has a very calming effect on the body.

Humerus: A term referring to the upper arm bone that runs between the shoulder and the elbow.

Hydrangea: Helps reduce inflamed prostrate and urinary tract infections; Hydrangea's greatest use is in the treatment of inflamed or enlarged prostate glands. It may also be used for bladder problems and urinary tract infections. It aids the kidneys, particularly when combined with Parsley and Barberry and is considered an excellent herb for rheumatism.

Hydrotherapy: Treatment using water.

Hyperextensions: The excessive extension of a limb or joint, usually followed by pain and some inflammation.

Hyperglycemia: Elevations of blood glucose, either from the various types of diabetes, excessive sugar intake (short term) or from adrenalin or stimulant causes.

Hyperkinetic: Too physically active, jittery, peripatetic.

Hyperlipidemia: Elevated concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins, or a combination of these.

Hypertrophy: An increase in muscle fiber size resulting from strength training. Generally, the increase in size or mass of a cell, tissue, or organ.

Hypotension: A condition where the blood pressure is below the normal range.

Fitness Terminology: Pain is temporary

Go To Fitness Terms . . . I thru P
Go To Fitness Terms . . . Q thru Z

We hope these Fitness Terminology definitions are helpful to you in further understanding the wonderful subject of Fitness!

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